In the name Off God
Section one: reading comprehension
Agricultural engineering, in the most general terms, is the use of engineering in agriculture. Both engineering and agriculture today cover very broad areas. Engineering offers a rapidly increasing number of possibilities for solving problems. Agriculture indentifies a rapidly increasing number of production and processing problem to be solved.
Engineering extend from simple tools to complex computer program and robotic machines; agriculture extends from simply rotating crops and grazing sheep on poor soils, to intensive production with technical and scientific support. Agriculture engineering contributes to progress in varying ways across the production-to consumer system. In contributes not only in increasing production, but also in improving a number of aspects of rural life such as public facilities, roads, environment, landscape, and rural Health. The quality of human life has to be kept in mind by those making plans wide regard to the environment, energy production, health, food and feed, and landscape. This is true not only for industrial countries, but also for developing countries, where agriculture engineering is still in its early stages.
In agriculture and rural development nearly every step is based on a foregoing one. The present stage is the starting level for the next stage of progress; development is step-by-step. Natural factor and often human factors prevent too big a jump in development and restrict agriculture or engineering possibilities. The human factors include individual capacities, rural customs, social and religious rules, infrastructure, economics, and market situation. development planning and projects have to be balanced on the basis of feasibility, taking into account all these aspects of a situation.
A few examples with an increasing level of development show this:
(1) blades of knives of rotary hoes need regular sharpening or welding. As a first step, local infrastructure has to be brought into being; local repair shop need know-how equipment and training to do the repair or to replace the parts At a later stage of development, on larger farms. Farmers can perform these tasks Having gained that ability through special courses and broad experience. the use of better materials leads to higher level of plant production.
(2) introduction engines into an arias farm requires extensive training of drivers and other users, as well as strong guidance in a neighborhood requires considerable negotiation and much thought-even more than the first truck service to the nearest town. Tractors must match field sizes and roads. the total agriculture community becomes involved, e.g., in the repair operation. Strong sentiments and social circumstances often play a major role in whether a new way of carrying out jobs is accepted. Literature on experiences in similar projects, specially on why expected goals were not reached, is a valuable aid in planning, instruction and guidance.
(3) typical of far-reaching technological decisions in the introduction of electricity in a village and on farms. Electricity changes life and work
Completely, e.g., in the way water is provided for humans, livestock , and irrigation, and in the living facilities
Of the home. moreover public life changes and offers more opportunities for progress, specially in the field of processing and storing of agriculture goods and products. Most of the first-network built in third world countries have already been renewed, giving more power than was foreseen initially. Reports are available about increasing demands in several arias. a thorough study of these beforehand can prevent or reduce disappointments.
(4) raised agriculture output require a purchaser for the increased production. Especially in developing countries cannot always find a dependable, trustworthy, or stable marketing system. Technological progress is often hampered in such circumstances. Market information must be taken into account at an early stage. Market research studies need to be published and made available. Case studies of past projects can be used in working out the master plan of a project directed toward more output through improved production technologies.
(5) enterprise management of today farms with a high output per worker (high wage level) means confronting complex problems of decision making proper computer programming and adequate information are needed. Engineering is now delivering sensors and programs, suitable for following in, detail, what a plant, an animal and the soil need. Information is also available for retrieval; so that programming for individual situation can be carried out with greater detail ease. Many more examples could be given to illustrate the relation between the simple and the complex in agriculture engineering knowledge. The steps in development require intensive planning, each step in connection with the foregoing one.